In succeeding years many further specimens have been found, not only in the German Neander Valley, but in with rickets, caused by a deficiency of vitamin D.
He considered that the flattened head was caused by repeated powerful blows (his examination was done pre Darwinism 1859).
During the race you have to watch the swimmer and count how many laps he has swum so you know that he has done 1,500 metres.
The skull was unlike anything seen before, having a flattened cranium with a heavy brow ridge above large eye sockets.
Nearby, workers also uncovered an assortment of thick and heavily fossilized bones.
Climate records from a Japanese lake are set to improve the accuracy of the dating technique, which could help to shed light on archaeological mysteries such as why Neanderthals became extinct.
Carbon dating is used to work out the age of organic material — in effect, any living thing.