Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Republic of the Congo. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education Forced labor in farming,* including the production of cocoa,* domestic work, stone quarries,* fishing,* and market vending, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 6, 10, 11, 15, 17, 18) under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. Children are trafficked to ROC, mainly from West African countries and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-4, 10, 11, 15, 17, 19-21) Children are also trafficked internally from rural areas to Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire for forced labor.(1, 3, 10, 11, 15) Indigenous children in particular are vulnerable to forced labor in agriculture.(1, 10, 11, 22) Information on children’s work is limited, as there has never been a national child labor survey or similar research conducted in ROC.(23) The Government does not collect fees for examinations and provides free textbooks through secondary school in an attempt to increase children’s access to education.(11, 21) Although the Constitution stipulates that education is free until age 16, in practice, some parents are required to pay for books, uniforms, and school fees.
This may limit some children’s access to education.(3, 22) Over-enrollment, a lack of teachers, and sexual abuse in schools also pose barriers to education for some children.(13, 22, 24) There were no reports that children from the DRC living in Brazzaville were denied access to education during the reporting period.
In 2015, the Republic of the Congo made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
The Government launched a project to expand the network of foster families throughout the nation, continued to implement a school feeding program which served approximately 215,000 children, and undertook a mapping project in Pointe-Noire to identify possible human trafficking rings and hotspots for commercial sexual exploitation.
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The present-day distribution of the genus seems to be influenced by large-scale rainforest fragmentation related to drier periods in geological history.
The refugial hypothesis posits that fragmentation of the rainforest occurred as a result of large-scale climate changes linked to ice-age cycles.
This was transversal study of women residing in Lubumbashi who had delivered between January and December 2009.
In total, 1762 women were sampled from households using indicator cluster surveys in all health zones.
, a common rodent genus present in rainforests and montane forests in sub-Saharan Africa.
The taxonomy of the group is problematic, and for the sampled region of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo) no prior genetic study has been published.